Photo #1 - On-camera bounce - Indoor Portrait
Take an indoor portrait using a white wall to bounce the light from the flash. The flash must be attached to your camera. Manual or TTL. You may need to use a gel (usually orange) to balance the flash colour temperature to the room colour temperature.
Photo #2 - Off-camera with umbrella - Outdoor Portrait
Use a transmitter, receiver, and light stand to fire the flash. Use an umbrella to soften the flash. Manual or TTL.
Photo #3 - Key Shifting (before and after images)
Key shifting is when you expose your subject normally, but decrease the exposure on the background by one to three stops. You can stop down with shutter speed, aperture, or ISO. Use a transmitter, receiver and light stand to fire the flash. Use an umbrella if you want to soften the flash. Hand in two images - one without key shifting, and one with key shifting. Manual or TTL.
Photo #4 - On-camera fill flash (before and after images)
Mount the flash directly on your camera. Use TTL mode. You may also attach a LightSphere. You must hand in both before and after pics. The before pic should show that fill flash is needed (dark eye sockets). The background should be properly exposed in both shots, with fill light in the subject's eyes for the after shot.